Wiccapedia: A Modern-Day White Witch's Guide: 1 (The Modern-Day Witch)

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Wiccapedia: A Modern-Day White Witch's Guide: 1 (The Modern-Day Witch)

Wiccapedia: A Modern-Day White Witch's Guide: 1 (The Modern-Day Witch)

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Spells that banish the negative energy that’s around you, creating space for what’s new and positive.

Heselton, Philip (November 2001). Wiccan Roots: Gerald Gardner and the Modern Witchcraft Revival. Freshfields, Chieveley, Berkshire: Capall Bann Pub. ISBN 1-86163-110-3. OCLC 46955899. Napier, G. (2017). Maleficium: Witchcraft and Witch Hunting in the West. United Kingdom: Amberley Publishing.Water is used extensively in Magic as both a symbolic and a literal entity and a tool for purification and to contain and transfer energy. (i.e. moon water). Although Gerald Gardner initially demonstrated an aversion to homosexuality, claiming that it brought down "the curse of the goddess", [91] it is now generally accepted in all traditions of Wicca, with groups such as the Minoan Brotherhood openly basing their philosophy upon it. [92] The Witchcraft religion began to grow in 1951, with the repeal of the Witchcraft Act of 1735, after which Gerald Gardner and then others such as Charles Cardell and Cecil Williamson began publicising their own versions of the Craft. Gardner and others never used the term "Wicca" as a religious identifier, simply referring to the "witch cult", "witchcraft", and the "Old Religion". However, Gardner did refer to witches as "the Wica". [187] During the 1960s, the name of the religion normalised to "Wicca". [188] Gardner's tradition, later termed Gardnerianism, soon became the dominant form in England and spread to other parts of the British Isles. Smith, Diane (2005). Wicca and Witchcraft for Dummies. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley. p.125. ISBN 0-7645-7834-0. OCLC 61395185.

Crowley, Vivianne (1996). Wicca: The Old Religion in the New Millennium. London: Thorsons. p.129. ISBN 0-7225-3271-7. OCLC 34190941. Wicca was founded in England between 1921 and 1950, [162] representing what the historian Ronald Hutton called "the only full-formed religion which England can be said to have given the world". [163] Characterised as an " invented tradition" by scholars, [164] Wicca was created from the patchwork adoption of various older elements, many taken from pre-existing religious and esoteric movements. [165] Pearson characterised it as having arisen "from the cultural impulses of the fin de siècle". [166] The 'witch-cult' theory has since been disproven by further historical research, [23] but it is still common for Wiccans to claim solidarity with witch trial victims. [174] The notion that Wiccan traditions and rituals have survived from ancient times is contested by most recent researchers, who say that Wicca is a 20th-century creation which combines elements of freemasonry and 19th-century occultism. [175] In his 1999 book The Triumph of the Moon, English historian Ronald Hutton researched the Wiccan claim that ancient pagan customs have survived into modern times after being Christianised in medieval times as folk practices. Hutton found that most of the folk customs which are claimed to have pagan roots (such as the Maypole dance) actually date from the Middle Ages. He concluded that the idea that medieval revels were pagan in origin is a legacy of the Protestant Reformation. [73] [176] Hutton noted that Wicca predates the modern New Age movement and also differs markedly in its general philosophy. [73]

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Greenwood, Susan. "The Nature of the Goddess: Sexual Identities and Power in Contemporary Witchcraft". In Pearson, Roberts & Samuel (1998), pp.101–110.

Dawn’s Gemini brain loved this assignment. It was a wonderful thought challenge that sent her down a rabbit hole of additional studies and references that often distilled down to very simple concepts. The exercise helped Dawn understand each concept better too! Morris, William, ed. (1969). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. New York: American Heritage Publishing. p. 1548. ISBN 0-395-09066-0. Bourne, Lois (1998). Dancing With Witches. London: Robert Hale. p.51. ISBN 0-7090-6223-0. OCLC 39117828. Todd, Douglas. "University of Victoria chaplain marks solstice with pagan rituals | Vancouver Sun". Blogs.vancouversun.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016 . Retrieved 2 May 2013. a b c Hutton, Ronald (2017). The Witch: A History of Fear, from Ancient Times to the Present. Yale University Press. p.121.

Narcissus are popular garden flowers and harbingers of springs native to Europe, North Africa, and Asia. Belief in the afterlife varies among Wiccans and does not occupy a central place within the religion. [63] As the historian Ronald Hutton remarked, "the instinctual position of most [Wiccans]... seems to be that if one makes the most of the present life, in all respects, then the next life is more or less certainly going to benefit from the process, and so one may as well concentrate on the present". [64] It is nevertheless a common belief among Wiccans that human beings have a spirit or soul that survives bodily death. [63] Understandings of what this soul constitutes vary among different traditions, with the Feri tradition of witchcraft, for instance, having adopted a belief from Hawaiian religion, Kabbalah, and other sources, that the human being has three souls. [63] Magliocco, Sabina. "Ritual is My Chosen Art Form: The Creation of Ritual as Folk Art Among Contemporary Pagans". In Lewis (1996), pp.93–119.

It was during the 1930s that the first evidence appears for the practice of a neopagan 'Witchcraft' religion [180] (what would be recognisable now as Wicca) in England. It seems that several groups around the country, in such places as Norfolk, [181] Cheshire [182] and the New Forest had set themselves up after being inspired by Murray's writings about the "Witch-Cult". Unicorn plant is the common name for several species of plants native to the Americas in the genus Proboscidea. The element Earth is a classical Western element associated with the physical body and material abundance. Pearson, Joanne (2007). Wicca and the Christian Heritage: Ritual, Sex and Magic. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415254144. Theological views within Wicca are diverse. [38] The religion encompasses theists, atheists, and agnostics, with some viewing the religion's deities as entities with a literal existence and others viewing them as Jungian archetypes or symbols. [39] Even among theistic Wiccans, there are divergent beliefs, and Wicca includes pantheists, monotheists, duotheists, and polytheists. [40] Common to these divergent perspectives, however, is that Wicca's deities are viewed as forms of ancient, pre-Christian divinities by its practitioners. [41] Duotheism [ edit ] Altar statues of the Horned God and Mother Goddess crafted by Bel Bucca and owned by the "Mother of Wicca", Doreen Valiente

Lammas is a Christian celebration of Anglo-Saxon origin that is common within many modern Pagan communities as well. Many Wiccans believe in magic, a manipulative force exercised through the practice of " spellcraft". [66] Many Wiccans agree with the definition of magic offered by ceremonial magicians, [67] such as Aleister Crowley, who declared that magic was "the science and art of causing change to occur in conformity with will", while another ceremonial magician, MacGregor Mathers stated that it was "the science of the control of the secret forces of nature". [67] Many Wiccans believe magic to be a law of nature, as yet misunderstood or disregarded by contemporary science, [67] and as such they do not view it as being supernatural, but a part of what Leo Martello calls the "super powers that reside in the natural". [68] Some Wiccans believe that magic is simply making full use of the five senses to achieve surprising results, [68] whilst other Wiccans do not claim to know how magic works, merely believing that it does because they have observed it to be so. [69]

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