NXT Nutrition TNT Nuclear Shots - Pre Workout Energy Drink 12 x 60ml (Blue Raspberry)

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NXT Nutrition TNT Nuclear Shots - Pre Workout Energy Drink 12 x 60ml (Blue Raspberry)

NXT Nutrition TNT Nuclear Shots - Pre Workout Energy Drink 12 x 60ml (Blue Raspberry)

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a b Esteve-Núñez A, Caballero A, Ramos JL (2001). "Biological degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65 (3): 335–52, table of contents. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.65.3.335-352.2001. PMC 99030. PMID 11527999.

For comparison, gunpowder contains 3 megajoules per kilogram, dynamite contains 7.5 megajoules per kilogram, and gasoline contains 47.2 megajoules per kilogram (though gasoline requires an oxidant, so an optimized gasoline and O 2 mixture contains 10.4 megajoules per kilogram). [ citation needed] Detection [ edit ] U.S. Explosive Ordnance, Bureau of Ordnance. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Navy. 1947. p.580. Furman, David; Kosloff, Ronnie; Dubnikova, Faina; Zybin, Sergey V.; Goddard, William A.; Rom, Naomi; Hirshberg, Barak; Zeiri, Yehuda (6 March 2014). "Decomposition of Condensed Phase Energetic Materials: Interplay between Uni- and Bimolecular Mechanisms". Journal of the American Chemical Society. American Chemical Society (ACS). 136 (11): 4192–4200. doi: 10.1021/ja410020f. ISSN 0002-7863. PMID 24495109.a b "2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

The association constant for TNT with soil is 2.7 to 11 L/kg of soil. [40] This means that TNT has a one- to tenfold tendency to adhere to soil particulates than not when introduced into the soil. [36] Hydrogen bonding and ion exchange are two suggested mechanisms of adsorption between the nitro functional groups and soil colloids.

7. Cinzano

Ayoub K, van Hullebusch ED, Cassir M, Bermond A (2010). "Application of advanced oxidation processes for TNT removal: A review". J. Hazard. Mater. 178 (1–3): 10–28. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.02.042. PMID 20347218.

Hawari J, Beaudet S, Halasz A, Thiboutot S, Ampleman G (2000). "Microbial degradation of explosives: biotransformation versus mineralization". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54 (5): 605–18. doi: 10.1007/s002530000445. PMID 11131384. S2CID 22362850. Ascend Waste and Environment (7 June 2015). The health and environmental impacts of hazardous wastes: Impact Profiles (PDF). awe.gov.au (Report) . Retrieved 22 April 2022.The concentration of TNT in contaminated soil can reach 50 g/kg of soil, where the highest concentrations can be found on or near the surface. In September 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) declared TNT a pollutant whose removal is a priority. [34] The USEPA maintains that TNT levels in soil should not exceed 17.2 milligrams per kilogram of soil and 0.01 milligrams per litre of water. [35] Aqueous solubility [ edit ] Water is a healthy and cheap choice to keep you hydrated, but other drinks can also count towards your fluid intake. We also get some fluids from the foods we eat. Brannon JM, Price CB, Yost SL, Hayes C, Porter B (2005). "Comparison of environmental fate and transport process descriptors of explosives in saline and freshwater systems". Mar. Pollut. Bull. 50 (3): 247–51. Bibcode: 2005MarPB..50..247B. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.10.008. PMID 15757688.

TNT was first prepared in 1863 by German chemist Julius Wilbrand [6] and originally used as a yellow dye. Its potential as an explosive was not recognized for three decades, mainly because it was too difficult to detonate because it was less sensitive than alternatives. Its explosive properties were discovered in 1891 by another German chemist, Carl Häussermann. [7] TNT can be safely poured when liquid into shell cases, and is so insensitive that in 1910 it was exempted from the UK's Explosives Act 1875 and was not considered an explosive for the purposes of manufacture and storage. [8] Because of its suitability in construction and demolition, TNT has become the most widely used explosive and thus its toxicity is the most characterized and reported. Residual TNT from manufacture, storage, and use can pollute water, soil, the atmosphere, and the biosphere. [33] Norman Skentelbery (1975). Arrows to Atom Bombs: A History of the Ordnance Board (2nded.). Ordnance Board. p.99. a b c d e f Pennington JC, Brannon JM (February 2002). "Environmental fate of explosives". Thermochimica Acta. 384 (1–2): 163–172. doi: 10.1016/S0040-6031(01)00801-2. Additional studies have shown that the mobility of TNT degradation products is likely to be lower "than TNT in subsurface environments where specific adsorption to clay minerals dominates the sorption process." [41] Thus, the mobility of TNT and its transformation products are dependent on the characteristics of the sorbent. [41] The mobility of TNT in groundwater and soil has been extrapolated from "sorption and desorption isotherm models determined with humic acids, in aquifer sediments, and soils". [41] From these models, it is predicted that TNT has a low retention and transports readily in the environment. [34]Compared to other explosives, TNT has a higher association constant with soil, meaning it adheres more with soil than with water. Conversely, other explosives, such as RDX and HMX with low association constants (ranging from 0.06 to 7.3 L/kg and 0 to 1.6 L/kg respectively) can move more rapidly in water. [36] Chemical breakdown [ edit ] Babrauskas, Vytenis (2003). Ignition Handbook. Issaquah, WA: Fire Science Publishers/Society of Fire Protection Engineers. p.453. ISBN 978-0-9728111-3-2. In the laboratory, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene is produced by a two-step process. A nitrating mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids is used to nitrate toluene to a mixture of mono- and di-nitrotoluene isomers, with careful cooling to maintain temperature. The nitrated toluenes are then separated, washed with dilute sodium bicarbonate to remove oxides of nitrogen, and then carefully nitrated with a mixture of fuming nitric acid and sulfuric acid. [ citation needed] Applications [ edit ] In industry, TNT is produced in a three-step process. First, toluene is nitrated with a mixture of sulfuric and nitric acid to produce mononitrotoluene (MNT). The MNT is separated and then renitrated to dinitrotoluene (DNT). In the final step, the DNT is nitrated to trinitrotoluene (TNT) using an anhydrous mixture of nitric acid and oleum. Nitric acid is consumed by the manufacturing process, but the diluted sulfuric acid can be reconcentrated and reused. After nitration, TNT is stabilized by a process called sulfitation, where the crude TNT is treated with aqueous sodium sulfite solution to remove less stable isomers of TNT and other undesired reaction products. The rinse water from sulfitation is known as red water and is a significant pollutant and waste product of TNT manufacture. [11]

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