Giraffe with a Short Neck

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Giraffe with a Short Neck

Giraffe with a Short Neck

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a b c d e VanderWaal, K. L.; Wang, H.; McCowan, B.; Fushing, H.; Isbell, L. A. (2014). "Multilevel social organization and space use in reticulated giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis)". Behavioral Ecology. 25 (1): 17–26. doi: 10.1093/beheco/art061. a b Holmes, Bob (19 May 2021). "Heads up! The cardiovascular secrets of giraffes". Knowable Magazine. doi: 10.1146/knowable-051821-2. S2CID 236354545. Archived from the original on 6 July 2022 . Retrieved 1 August 2022. Ramstein, Gilles; Fluteau, Frédéric; Besse, Jean; Joussaume, Sylvie (24 April 1997). "Effect of orogeny, plate motion and land–sea distribution on Eurasian climate change over the past 30 million years". Nature. 386 (6627): 788–795. Bibcode: 1997Natur.386..788R. doi: 10.1038/386788a0. S2CID 4335003.

Giraffes have beautiful spotted coats. While no two individuals have exactly the same pattern, giraffes from the same area appear similar. Dinosaurs are classified as reptiles, a group that includes crocodiles, lizards, turtles, and snakes. Of this large group of animals, other than birds, crocodiles are the closest living things to dinosaurs. Is a Brachiosaurus taller than a giraffe? The giraffe genome is around 2.9 billion base pairs in length, compared to the 3.3 billion base pairs of the okapi. Of the proteins in giraffe and okapi genes, 19.4% are identical. The divergence of giraffe and okapi lineages dates to around 11.5 mya. A small group of regulatory genes in the giraffe appear to be responsible for the animal's height and associated circulatory adaptations. [16] [17] Species and subspecies Map showing "Approximate geographic ranges, fur patterns, and phylogenetic relationships between some giraffe subspecies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Colored dots on the map represent sampling localities. The phylogenetic tree is a maximum-likelihood phylogram based on samples from 266 giraffes. Asterisks along branches correspond to node values of more than 90% bootstrap support. Stars at branch tips identify paraphyletic haplotypes found in Maasai and reticulated giraffes". [18]

It is strange that Pincher is able to critique Darwin’s view so clearly and yet doesn’t recognize that he is proposing the same type of inadequate explanation. The giraffe ancestor could just as well have developed greater bulk or more running muscles, both of which would have aided in avoiding predators. The fact is that despite its size and long stride, the giraffe is still preyed upon by lions. And as one study of one hundred giraffes killed by lions in South Africa showed, almost twice as many bulls were killed as cows (Pienaar 1969; cited in Simmons and Scheepers 1996). The longer stride of bulls evidently doesn’t help them avoid lions better than the shorter legged females. Who knows whether their long stride may in some way make them more vulnerable? Another speculative idea into the wastebasket. While the giraffe as we know it is native to Africa, more than 20-25 million years ago their ancestors also roamed along Europe and Asia. There aren’t many fossils of them, but some information has allowed scientists to come up with some evolution theories. a b Wube, T.; Doherty, J. B.; Fennessy, J.; Marais, A. (2018). " Giraffa camelopardalis ssp. camelopardalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T88420707A88420710.en. A 2020 study showed that depending on the method chosen, different taxonomic hypotheses recognizing from two to six species can be considered for the genus Giraffa. [23] That study also found that multi-species coalescent methods can lead to taxonomic over-splitting, as those methods delimit geographic structures rather than species. The three-species hypothesis, which recognises G. camelopardalis, G. giraffa, and G. tippelskirchi, is highly supported by phylogenetic analyses and also corroborated by most population genetic and multi-species coalescent analyses. [23] A 2021 whole genome sequencing study suggests the existence of four distinct species and seven subspecies. [24] Nature Communications - Giraffe genome sequence reveals clues to its unique morphology and physiology

a b c d e f g h i j k l Mitchell, G.; Skinner, J. D. (2003). "On the origin, evolution and phylogeny of giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis". Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 58 (1): 51–73. doi: 10.1080/00359190309519935. S2CID 6522531. a b Wedel, M. J. (2012). "A monument of inefficiency: the presumed course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in sauropod dinosaurs" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 57 (2): 251–56. doi: 10.4202/app.2011.0019. S2CID 43447891. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 October 2013. Another related question is why only the giraffes developed this feature when many other animals in the zone are also herbivores? The theories and hypotheses have arisen to explain this subject, but none has the general acceptance of the scientific community. Harrison, D. F. N. (1995). The Anatomy and Physiology of the Mammalian Larynx. Cambridge University Press. p.165. ISBN 978-0-521-45321-9. Lee, Derek E.; Bond, Monica L.; Kissui, Bernard M.; Kiwango, Yustina A.; Bolger, Douglas T. (11 May 2016). "Spatial variation in giraffe demography: a test of 2 paradigms". Journal of Mammalogy. 97 (4): 1015–1025. doi: 10.1093/jmammal/gyw086. ISSN 0022-2372. S2CID 87117946.

CONSERVATION

Brownlee, A. (1963). "Evolution of the Giraffe". Nature. 200 (4910): 1022. Bibcode: 1963Natur.200.1022B. doi: 10.1038/2001022a0. S2CID 4145785. Skinner, J. D.; Mitchell, G. (2011). "Lung volumes in giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis" (PDF). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 158 (1): 72–78. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.09.003. hdl: 2263/16472. PMID 20837156. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 November 2018 . Retrieved 27 November 2011. The giraffe, named Gimli, only reached a height of 9 feet, 4 inches tall—several feet shorter than the average adult, which grows to about 16 feet. The team was in "disbelief," Michael Brown, a conservation scientist with the Giraffe Conservation Foundation and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, tells the Times.

Chen, L.; Qiu, Q.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, K. (2019). "Large-scale ruminant genome sequencing provides insights into their evolution and distinct traits". Science. 364 (6446): eaav6202. Bibcode: 2019Sci...364.6202C. doi: 10.1126/science.aav6202. PMID 31221828. a b Fennessy, S.; Fennessy, J.; Muller, Z.; Brown, M.; Marais, A. (2018). " Giraffa camelopardalis ssp. rothschildi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T174469A51140829. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T174469A51140829.en . Retrieved 19 November 2021. a b Kasozi, H.; Montgomery, R. A. (2018). "How do giraffes locate one another? A review of visual, auditory, and olfactory communication among giraffes". Journal of Zoology. 306 (3): 139–146. doi: 10.1111/jzo.12604. Darwin explains that individuals with characteristics better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and therefore, such traits are inherited. He also said that species that can not compete and adapt eventually become extinct.Agaba, M.; Ishengoma, E.; Miller, W. C.; McGrath, B. C.; Hudson, C. N.; Bedoya, R. O. C.; Ratan, A.; Burhans, R.; Chikhi, R.; Medvedev, P.; Praul C. A.; Wu-Cavener, L.; Wood, B.; Robertson, H.; Penfold, L.; Cavener, D. R. (2016). "Giraffe genome sequence reveals clues to its unique morphology and physiology". Nature Communications. 7: 11519. Bibcode: 2016NatCo...711519A. doi: 10.1038/ncomms11519. PMC 4873664. PMID 27187213. The researchers uncovered the newly-described D. xiezhi fossils in the Junggar Basin, a large sediment-filled depression in the Xinjiang region of northwestern China. One specimen included a complete braincase — the part of the skull that houses the brain— and the first four vertebrae of the animal's spine.



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