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Sign up to unlock our digital magazines and also receive the latest news, events, offers and partner promotions. Genomic imprinting is one likely candidate, as it allows for phenotypic plasticity and it has already been implicated in maternal‐fetal conflict in the womb via imprinting of maternal and paternal genes in the placenta 36. Most human studies that we report below tested for the presence or absence of male DNA/male cells in blood or tissue from female patients who have or have not previously given birth to a son.

Here, we extend the concept of maternal‐offspring conflict beyond the womb to interactions between fetal cells and maternal tissues throughout the body both during and after pregnancy. Male DNA has been detected more frequently in disease tissues compared to healthy controls in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease 47. This predicts that fetal cells may take over stem cell niches, which may be associated with greater survival and reduced aging of mothers. The presence of fetal cells has been associated with both positive and negative effects on maternal health.Furthermore, we found that, 1-3 years after vaccination with whole-cell or acellular vaccine, a significant percentage of children are again susceptible for typical pertussis. Eind 2015 heeft de Gezondheidsraad het advies uitgebracht om kinkhoestvaccinatie tijdens de zwangerschap aan te bieden via een nationaal programma. However, in other autoimmune diseases, pregnancy is associated with no change symptoms or an exacerbation of symptoms 102, 103.

To investigate the clinical picture and frequency of Bordetella pertussis and B parapertussis infections after introduction of acellular pertussis (acP) vaccines in Germany. Breast milk levels of IgA against PT, FHA, and FIM were first detectable at day 7, peaked by day 10, and then slowly decreased through day 28.

Of 123 494 women with singleton pregnancies ending in a live birth between January 1, 2010, and November 15, 2012, 26 229 (21%) received Tdap during pregnancy and 97 265 did not. Retrospective, observational cohort study using administrative health care databases from 2 California Vaccine Safety Datalink sites.

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